It’s one of those rumors that just won’t die.
It is said that churches and convents within the walled city of Intramuros were connected to each other through a vast network of underground tunnels.
Every night when everyone else was dozing off, some friars and nuns in the 19th century Manila would take this route to secretly meet each other. And that’s how these religious people were able to keep a romantic relationship without their superiors knowing it, and away from the unforgiving eyes of the society and the Catholic church. Or so the story goes.
However, in the absence of any physical evidence, a hearsay such as this will always remain as just that–a hearsay.
But not in the case of San Ignacio Church. It is believed that the old Jesuit church had a secret passageway that connected it with the Colegio de Sta. Isabel run by nuns. One man allegedly saw it first hand, and soon started an unending mystery that was walled city’s hidden tunnels.
Inside the “gaping hole”
During the Battle of Manila in 1945, San Ignacio Church was pulverized by bombs from either the Japanese or American forces. Only the ruined walls of the church survived and the property was subsequently acquired by the government who then rented it out to different companies.
In 1949, a few years after the destruction, an American named Victor Lednicky was supervising the laying of foundation for the Allied Brokerage Storage Building. The warehouse was about to be built on a lot previously occupied by the San Ignacio Church.
His contractors were doing some digging in the area when they accidentally discovered what appeared to be a human passageway buried underneath. Lednicky immediately called the help of Professor H. Otley Beyer, a famed archaeologist, to further explore what they just found out. Filipino anthropologist Dr. E. Arsenio Manuel, then an assistant to Beyer, accompanied the latter to inspect the said archaeological discovery.
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When the two arrived on the scene, they were welcomed by a “gaping hole” whose entrance was filled with rubble and small pieces of rocks. As Manuel descended, he discovered that it was also flooded with a foot deep of water. He estimated it to be six feet high and about four feet wide. The said tunnel also had an arched ceiling, and was entirely made of red bricks.
As he walked further away from the entrance, Manuel came across a grim sight. Lying on a ledge on his right side was the skeletal remains of what appeared to be a child and an adult:
“….the child having become pulverized in situ and outlining the body distinctly enough. So also with the other individual’s bones through fragments–the femur and skull appeared intact. The adult person must have been laid on its right side, the jaw bone had fallen but the teeth were complete except that the third molar had not yet erupted. Though the remains were clearly identifiable, they were no longer retrievable except the femur, skull, and jawbone.”
Although he wanted to explore more, the floodwater along with the possible danger of encountering insects, snakes, and “stale air or gases” deterred Manuel from pushing through. But one last discovery further reinforced his assumption that he’s walking inside an underground tunnel.
About four or five meters ahead, the passageway divided into two. Assuming that it was “oriented a little towards the southeast,” he believed that the forking was directed to the east. Again, he had no time to confirm it, let alone perform a detailed scientific study.
Manuel saved everything he saw that day on his notes. Unfortunately, his original 1949 notes vanished forever when his house was engulfed by fire in 1974.
Over the following years, Manuel encountered Intramuros residents who claimed that they heard–and even saw–the mysterious underground tunnels of the walled city. In 1989, Manuel delivered a paper entitled “Subterranean Structures in Intramuros” for the first annual Manila Studies Program Conference. He also recommended that a follow-up research be done on these tunnels, but no one heeded his call.
And so the questions lingered: Who ordered the construction of this tunnel and for what purpose? Was it really a tunnel that Manuel discovered in 1949 or something else more complicated?
Solving the Puzzle
Jose Victor Torres, a Filipino historian, has a different theory. He said that the passageway excavated in 1949 and the one uncovered by government agencies a few decades later are one and the same. And it’s NOT an underground tunnel.
During the late ’70s, the Intramuros Administration (IA) was tasked to restore the walled city and in so doing, they had to demolish the warehouses occupying important landmarks. These included the warehouse built on the site of San Ignacio Church we previously mentioned.
Part of the project was to excavate the concrete flooring of the warehouse. Soon, the centuries-old secret of the church was finally exposed. Buried underneath was a concrete staircase leading to a secondary burial crypt.
The uncovered crypt contains 204 niches, each having names of the departed, their date of death, as well as an inscription that reads: “Restos Delos Padres y Hermanos Antiguos” (“Remains of Priest and Brothers”).
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The niches were mostly empty when they were discovered, although some had few pieces of bones in them. It is believed that the religious order who once occupied the church removed the bones from the niches after WWII and took them somewhere else.
As to the identification of the skeletal remains that were once stored in these niches, they were no less than the Jesuits who were expelled from the Philippines in the 18th century. Upon their return, they rebuilt the San Ignacio Church which was previously abandoned and ruined by an earthquake.
The church, completed in 1889, was designed by Felix Roxas, Sr. in the Classical and Renaissance style, while its interior was the masterpiece of renowned Filipino sculptor Isabelo Tampingco.
Because there’s no mention of a certain tunnel in any primary or secondary sources related to the church, Jose Victor Torres have reasons to believe that the underground crypt and the one in the story repeatedly told by E. Arsenio Manuel are the same.
In his book, “Pananaw: Viewing Points On Philippine History and Culture,” Torres compared Manuel’s 1949 descriptions with a report from the team who excavated the site in the 1980s. He pointed out the striking similarities between the features of the underground crypt and the one discovered by Manuel and his team, and they include: (1) the concrete stairway; (2) walls made of bricks; and (3) empty niches containing few pieces of bones.
However, in contrast with Manuel’s claim that the passageway branched out a few meters ahead, nothing extends beyond the excavated crypt. In other words, there’s nothing absolute about Torres’ conclusion, and a few questions remain unanswered.
Is the passageway reported by Manuel a few decades earlier the same as the underground crypt excavated by Intramuros Administration? Or was it something else?
An unsolved mystery
Perhaps it was not an underground tunnel for humans at all. In the same book written by Torres, it has been confirmed that there’s indeed a sewerage system in Intramuros, as attested by Don Manuel Mañosa who once headed the Metropolitan Water District (now MWSS) in building these drainage tunnels.
In 1984, the same agency, MWSS, also uncovered drainage tunnels below Intramuros while doing the required excavation to lay the water pipes. Before these tunnels were covered up for good, some engineers from IA performed the necessary documentation. It was noted that the tunnels, which were flooded with ankle-deep water, were big enough to accommodate a man in a crouched position.
As if it’s not complicated enough, we also have to deal with some claims of American forces that the Japanese army relied on a complex system of underground tunnels in a desperate attempt to defend Manila in 1945.
In the book “United States Army In WWII – The Pacific – Triumph In The Philippines” by Robert Ross Smith, the existence of an underground tunnel in Intramuros was also mentioned, this time as a key that helped Americans defeat the heavily-armed Japanese:
“By 1030 on 24 February the 145th Infantry had compressed the last resistance in its zone into the Aquarium, located in a bastion off the southwest corner of Intramuros. Since Japanese holed up in the government buildings across Padre Burgos Street covered the Aquarium’s outer walls with rifle and machine gun fire, the 145th Infantry was hard put to devise a plan of attack until the 1st Battalion discovered a tunnel connecting the bastion to the main wall.
Company C used the tunnel as an assault route, while the rest of the Battalion provided fire support for the attack from the south wall and Cannon Company SPM’s conducted a preparatory shelling. The Japanese neglected to defend the tunnel approach, and Company C, employing hand grenades and bazookas liberally, broke into the Aquarium with little trouble. The final assault began about 1600. An hour and a half and 115 dead Japanese later, the 145th Infantry had overcome the last organized resistance within Intramuros.”
Another reference to this mysterious tunnel system can be found in the United States vs. Gen. Tomoyuki Yamashita court trial records. The map, drawn by the guerrilla forces, shows among other symbols a series of dotted lines labelled as “TUNNEL.” The dotted lines branch out from the Manila Cathedral and ended in different buildings as far as Fort Santiago and the present-day Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila (PLM).
Whether these tunnels were built by the Japanese as part of their military strategy or had been in existence since Spanish colonial period, we’ll probably never figure out. After all, most, if not all, of these tunnels were buried as soon as the post-war restoration of Intramuros commenced and new structures were built above them.
The mystery of Intramuros tunnels might probably remain unsolved, but maybe it’s supposed to be that way. At the end of the day, we can always look forward to visit the Walled City because of the things, stories, and myths that will forever intrigue the child in us.
Want more amazing Pinoy trivia?
Ocampo, A. (2003). More to discover beneath Intramuros. Philippine Daily Inquirer, p. A9. Retrieved from https://goo.gl/7CtyM6
Smith, R. (2014). United States Army In WWII – The Pacific – Triumph In The Philippines: [Illustrated Edition]. Pickle Partners Publishing.
Torres, J. (2000). Pananaw: Viewing Points on Philippine History and Culture (pp. 114-119). UST Publishing House.