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Archaeology is the study of whatever our ancestors have left behind. It may sound boring, especially if you prefer to read battle stories than discover artifacts that are too museum-y for your taste.
However, prehistoric Philippines isn’t just all about crude tools and stones; ancient Filipinos have also left behind amazing treasures for us to marvel at.
Here are 15 of the greatest and most intense archaeological artifacts ever discovered in the Philippines:
1. The “Yawning” Jarlet of Leta-Leta Cave.
This jarlet, declared a National Cultural Treasure, is the earliest pot recovered in the country. It has a distinct rim that resembles a shouting or yawning person, hence the name.
Discovered by Dr. Robert Fox in Leta-Leta Cave, northern Palawan in 1965, this jarlet is associated to the Late Neolithic period (approximately 1000 to 1500 BC). It was excavated in a burial site where a stone adze as well as other intact pieces of pottery–including a stem cup and a footed jarlet, both of which are also declared national cultural treasures–were recovered.
2. The Callao Man.
In 2007, a group of archaeologists led by Dr. Armand Mijares of U.P. Diliman discovered a foot bone in Callao Cave in the town of Peñablanca, Cagayan. The said skeletal remain–specifically the third metatarsal of the foot–is said to be “the earliest human fossil found in the Asia-Pacific region.”
Based on a method called “uranium-series dating,” it was also revealed that the foot bone is approximately 67, 000 years old, predating the “Tabon Man”–long been thought to be the country’s earliest human remains–which is only 50,000 years old.
The Callao Man, according to experts, possibly reached the island of Luzon from Indonesia by raft, which suggests that our ancestors already possessed “knowledge of seacraft-making in this early period.”
However, other experts believe that the Callao Man is probably just a species closely related to humans and was a product of an evolutionary process called “human speciation.”
3. The Laguna Copper Plate Inscription (LCI).
Accidentally discovered in 1986 near the mouth of Lumbang River, the Laguna Copper Plate Inscription or LCI is the earliest historical document in the country and also the only pre-Spanish document discovered so far. Now a National Cultural Treasure, the LCI measures 7 x 12 inches when unrolled.
In 1990, the National Museum purchased the LCI and sought help from Antoon Postma, a Dutch national who was then the director of the Mangyan Assistance and Research Center, to decipher the inscription.
Postma, with the help of Dr. Johan de Casparis, later found out that the LCI was written in Kavi (Old Javanese writing system) and the language used was a combination of Old Tagalog, Old Javanese, Old Malay, and Sanskrit.
Even more surprising is the fact that the Philippines’ oldest document was neither a poem nor a song but a legal document called suddhapattra which, in today’s context, is a receipt for payment of debt.
According to Postma’s interpretation, the document was written on the fourth day of the waning moon of the month of Waisakha in the Shaka year 822 (April 21, 900 CE by the Western calendar). It stated that the debt of gold amounting to one kati and eight swarna (equivalent to 865 grams) owned by Namwaran was cancelled and the document given to his daughter, Angkatan.
4. The Flying Elephant of Lena Shoal.
Another National Cultural Treasure, this blue-and-white dish with flying elephant design is one of only two pieces ever recovered in the world. It was retrieved from the Lena Shoal wreck site in Palawan in 1997 through an underwater exploration project initiated by the Far Eastern Foundation for Nautical Archaeology (FEFNA) and the National Museum.
Made during the Middle Ming Dynasty (ca. 1500), the porcelain dish was recovered from the wreck site of a Chinese trading vessel. It features black and brown specks in the paste as well as lotus scroll with pointed leaves on the rim.
On its center, you can clearly see a dark-blue flying elephant design made even more dramatic by a background of stormy and foamy waves.
5. The Manunggul Jar.
The Manunggul jar was only one of several stunning artifacts discovered in Chamber A, Manunggul Cave in Lipuun Point, Palawan by a group of archaeologists who investigated the site from 1962 to 1965.
In addition to burial jars, they also recovered human remains covered in red paint and adorned with bracelets made of jade, shells, and stone beads.
Measuring 66.5 x 51.5 cms, the Manungggul jar is actually a secondary burial jar used to store the bones of someone who was previously buried. The lid features a “spirit boat” or “ship of the dead” carrying two souls on a journey to the afterlife.
The front figure–whose hands are folded across (a common practice in arranging the corpse during the prehistoric period)–is the passenger, while the figure in the back is the one guiding the journey, as evidenced by the now-missing paddle. Both figures are wearing a band tied over the crown of the head and under the jaw, a pattern that is still a part of burial practices of some indigenous groups in southern Philippines.
The body of the jar, on the other hand, is covered with a unique curvilinear design made of hematite or natural iron.
The Manunggul jar–dated to the Late Neolithic period (890-710 BC)–has a very intricate design that, in the words of archaeologist Robert B. Fox, “is perhaps unrivaled in Southeast Asia, the work of an artist and a master potter.”
6. Oton Death Mask.
The gold death mask of Oton, another National Cultural Treasure, was discovered in the 1960s by Alfredo Evangelista and F. Landa Jocan. It consists of a gold nose-disc and eye-mask, both of which were found in a grave site in San Antonio, Oton, Iloilo.
The gold mask–dated from the late 14th to the early 15th century A.D.–is the first of its kind recovered in the Philippines. It was part of an ancient burial practice, with the gold mask serving as an amulet against evil spirits.
Also Read: The Golden Death Masks of Cebu
The death mask was made by cutting out two pieces of thin gold sheets. The pieces would then be placed on a soft surface, after which the craftsman would use a pointed tool to press the intricate design from behind.
The practice of using gold mask to cover the face of the dead was brought to the Philippines by the southern Chinese. Around that time, Oton was a center of trade route, so it didn’t take long before a limited group of Filipinos started to adopt the custom.
7. Bolinao Skull.
The formidable Bolinao Skull is only one of 67 skulls recovered from the Balingasay Archaeological Site in Bolinao, Pangasinan. They were found along with several Early Ming dynasty (1368-1644) ceramics.
The skulls have teeth that are decorated with gold ornaments, a symbol of wealth and bravery during the prehistoric era.
The Bolinao Skull (shown above) stands out because gold scales were observed “on the buccal surfaces of the upper and lower incisors and canines.” The gold decorations have flat rounded tops that are placed in a bored hole on the teeth. These gold ornaments overlap one another, making them look like fish scales.
8. Maitum Anthropomorphic Burial Jar.
In 1991, archaeologists from the National Museum excavated several clay burial jars in Ayub Cave, Pinol, Maitum, Saranggani Province. These Metal Age (ca. 5 BC to 225 AD) jars depict human beings and feature three types of heads: Plain, with perforations, and with red (hematite) and black (organic matter) paints.
The Maitum anthropomorphic burial jars also show different types of facial expressions, setting them apart from any funeral pottery–including Palawan’s Manunggul jar–previously recovered in the Philippines.
Also Read: The “Fire Mummies” of Kabayan Burial Caves
Among the many anthropomorphic burial jars recovered in Ayub Cave, Jar No. 21 (see photo above) is the most unique. Aside from being the first anthropomorphic jar excavated intact, Jar No. 21 is also the only jar depicting a male sex organ. It also has a navel, two arms, two ears (which seem to be both right ears), and two nipples. The head is perforated while the lips were painted with red hematite.
When it was discovered, Jar No. 21 contained a deciduous human tooth, bone fragments, shells of land snails, and limestone pebbles.
9. Butuan “Mother Boat.”
In 2012, the remains of what archaeologists believe to be the biggest balangay (plank boat) in Philippine history was recovered in Butuan City.
Estimated to be around 800 years old, the newly-discovered Butuan “mother boat” may be centuries older than the European ships that landed in the archipelago in 16th century, and even predates Magellan’s arrival and death in 1521.
According to National Museum archeologist Dr. Mary Jane Louise A. Bolunia, the said “mother boat”–estimated to be at least 25 meters long–is believed to be the main “safekeeping” boat where trade goods and supplies were stored. On the other hand, the smaller balangays–similar to the eight previously-recovered Butuan boats–might have functioned as mere support vessels.
Although a long and careful study is still needed to prove that the discovery is an authentic balangay, its proximity to previous balangay excavation sites seems to promise a positive result.
10. San Diego’s Astrolabe.
San Diego was a Spanish galleon that sank on December 14, 1600, claiming the lives of 259 people. In 1992, the shipwreck was discovered off Fortune Island in Nasugbu, Batangas. Among the artifacts recovered were cannons, anchors, guns, Mexican jars, and a rare navigational device called astrolabe.
Estimated to be 400 years old, the San Diego’s astrolabe–now a National Cultural Treasure–is one of only two existing astrolabes in the world. After the recovery, the dimensions of the astrolabe were described as follows:
“….weighed 2, 434 grams, measured 182.5 mm in diameter and was between 17 mm thick at the top and 18 mm thick at the bottom…The core consisted of three spokes without footers. The intersection of the three spokes and the one which supported the counterweight was in the form of a circular medallion…
The upper semicircle was graduated in intervals of 5 degrees, but the numbers are not indicated, a characteristic this astrolabe shares with the Valencia astrolabe in the Greenwich Maritime Museum.”
11. The “Death Blanket” of Banton, Romblon.
The Banton burial cloth, another National Cultural Treasure, is actually just a piece of the blanket used by Filipinos in the 13th to 14th centuries to wrap a corpse. It was found in the 1960s inside the Guyangan Cave in Banton, Romblon along with other artifacts such as Ming period blue and white ceramics.
Also known as ikat, the piece of burial cloth is said to be the oldest existing cloth in the country and possibly the oldest warp ikat textile in Southeast Asia.
12. The Limestone Tombs of Mt. Kamhantik.
From 2011 to 2012, National Museum archaeologists unearthed a total of 15 limestone tombs and other valuable artifacts in Mt. Kamhantik near Mulanay town in Quezon province.
The archaeological site–which is part of a 280-hectare government-protected land–is believed to be the area where a 1,000-year-old village once stood.
Unlike other archaeological sites previously explored in the country, this burial ground features limestone coffins–a first in the Philippines and a proof that our ancestors also used a more advanced burial ritual.
Also Read: The Hanging Coffins of Sagada
Aside from the limestone coffins, archaeologists also recovered earthen jars, metal objects, and skeletal remains of both humans and animals. Based on the carbon dating tests done on the human tooth found in one of the graves, the village existed approximately during 10th to 14th century.
The tombs in Mt. Kamhantik were similar to Egypt’s ancient sarcophagus but unlike the latter, the limestone coffins lack elaborate designs and mythological symbols.
13. Batanes Castle.
In 1994, Dr. Eusebio Dizon, deputy director of the Archeology Division of the National Museum, went to Batanes with a team of experts for an extensive archaeological project.
One of their surprising discoveries was a triangular-shaped hill at Savidug, a municipality in Sabtang. They learned that this was one of four high rocky formations locally known as ijang (also spelled as idjang).
Dizon’s team were able to find evidence that these idjangs were used both for habitation and fortification. In other words, they functioned as a castle, similar to European structures in terms of purpose but not in terms of appearance.
Interestingly, the Savidug Idjang also shares similarities with the Okinawan castles called gusuku, located in the Ryukyu Islands between Japan and Taiwan.
The builders of idjang and gusuku were selective in choosing the natural topography to be utilized: Both structures were strategically built in high places. The artifacts found in Savidug such as 12th-century Chinese beads and Sung-type ceramics are also proof that the idjang‘s establishment coincided with the foundation of the Okinawan castles beginning c. AD 1200.
The inhabitants of Savidug Idjang survived by fishing and hunting, as evidenced by several artifacts found in the area such as skeletal remains of fish, bird, and other animals.
14. Calatagan Ritual Pot.
The Calatagan Ritual Pot is a National Cultural Treasure dated back to the 14th and 16th centuries. It was discovered by diggers in an archaeological site in Calatagan, Batangas in 1958, and subsequently donated to the National Museum in 1961.
Measuring 12 cm. high and 20.2 cm. at its widest and weighing 872 grams, this pot is considered as the country’s oldest cultural artifact with pre-Hispanic writing. It is distinct because of the mysterious ancient symbols inscribed on its shoulder.
Several attempts were made to decipher the inscription on the pot. In the 1960s, famed sculptor Guillermo Tolentino allegedly tried to communicate with the spirits of the dead to come up with a translation. His output–which suggests that the pot was an offering of a son or daughter to a dead mother–was dismissed by the scientific community.
Other previous attempts also failed, mostly because of the three major obstacles in translating the inscription: (1) The equivalents of many symbols are unknown; (2) Language is also unknown; and (3) The start and end of words, as well as the consonants of some words, are hard to determine.
Fortunately in 2008, Dr. Rolando O. Borrinaga of U.P. Manila finally came up with a reliable translation. He concluded that the inscription was written in the old Bisayan language, and the pot was used as a “native incense burner for the pag-ulî (return) rite to retrieve the soul of a moribund person during the pre-Hispanic era.”
He also added that the inscription “provides the outline of a three-stage monologue, presumably elaborated by a babaylan (native priestess) in a trance during the pag-ulî ritual.”
The following is Borrinaga’s translation:
Is it open now for sure? [the gateway to the spirit underworld]/
Take it as a gain already, dakit [Tag., balete] tree/
That [the soul] confused you for a mango tree/
[It] just crossed out of fear [to your domain] alone, is that so?/
Leave the dakit tree now, will you?/
Shame/Bring [back] the soul that you [were told to] encounter, okay?
15. The Golden Tara of Agusan.
This golden figurine of a female deity is the first image identified to be of Indian origin. In 1917, it was accidentally discovered by a Manobo woman in the banks of the Wawa River in Agusan, Mindanao after a heavy rain. Shortly after that, Philippines’ pioneer prehistorian H. Otley Beyer declared it as “the most spectacular find yet made in Philippine archaeology.”
The gold Agusan image, which measures five and a half inches tall and weighs nearly four pounds of 21 carat gold, is now displayed in the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, USA.
As for its origin, Beyer suggested that it was made by a Javanese expatriate who were mining Agusan for gold at that time. Dutch historian F.D.K. Bosch, on the other hand, said that it was made by a pre-colonial Filipino because the design lacks the distinct Javanese craftsmanship.
If the second theory is to be believed, the gold image of Agusan suggests that the prehistoric Filipinos were influenced by the traders from the Hindu-Malayan culture, such as the Majapahit Empire. Visayas, for instance, is said to be named after the last Southeast Hindu Prince Srivijaya.
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